Archive for October, 2011

Magnetic Nanoparticle

When a piece of a magnetic material is made smaller and smaller, is acquires simpler magnetic domain structure since less domain walls are needed in order to minimize the stray field energy. The extreme limit is represented by single domain particles. Magnetic nanoparticles are useful for a wide range of applications from data storage to medicinal imaging.

Various flame spray conditions and their impact on the resulting nanoparticles

High capacity information storage, for instance, requires smaller particle size that decreasing the particle size lowers the anisotropy energy responsible for holding the magnetic moments along certain directions and it becomes comparable to the thermal energy. Thermal fluctuations randomize magentic moments (unless external magnetic field is applied), which is the essence of the so-called superparamagnetic behavior. Core/shell structured magnetic systems have an extra source of anisotropy that increases the stability of magnetic moments up to certain temperature called blocking temperature.

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Materials Science - Overview

Materials can be natural - like wood, or human-made - like plastic. Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. With significant media attention focused on nanoscience andnanotechnology in recent years, materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities. Materials science also deals with fundamental properties and characteristics of materials.

Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.

Materials science is an applied science concerned with the relationship between the structure and properties of materials. Chemists who work in the field study how different combinations of molecules and materials result in different properties. They use this knowledge to synthesize new materials with special properties. Eduardo Kamenetzky, a senior research scientist at Cytec Industries, explains, “The central concept of materials science is relating the microstructure of a material to the properties you want it to have. By working with the microstructure, you can tailor the central properties of that material.” Materials scientists are generally employed by industry or in laboratories where the focus is on developing product-related technologies. Barry Speronello, an engineering fellow at Englehard Corporation, agrees, “There are a dozen bad ideas for each fair idea, and a dozen fair ideas for each good idea.

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What is Nanobots ?

Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer. More specifically, nanorobotics refers to the nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and building nanorobots, with devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. The names nanobots, nanoids, nanites, nanomachines or nanomites have also been used to describe these devices currently under research and development.

By 2020, scientists at Rutgers University believe that nanorobots will be injected into the bloodstream and administer a drug directly to an infected cell. This nanorobot has a carbon nanotube body, a biomolecular motor that propels it and peptide limbs to orient itself. Because it is composed of biological elements such as DNA and proteins, it will be easily removed from the body.(Image courtesy of the Bio-Nano Robotics team at Rutgers University: Constantinos Mavroidis, Martin L. Yarmush, Atul Dubey, Angela Thornton, Kevin Nikitczuk, Silvina Tomassone, Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos and Bernie Yurke.)

Nanorobots are theoretical microscopic devices measured on the scale of nanometers (1nm equals one millionth of 1 millimeter). When fully realized from the hypothetical stage, they would work at the atomic, molecular and cellular level to perform tasks in both the medical and industrial fields that have heretofore been the stuff of science fiction.

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Nanomedicine - the Future Medicine

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nanomedicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterials, to nanoelectronic biosensors, and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology. Current problems for nanomedicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.

Nanomedicine is the medical application of nanotechnology

Nanomedicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institute of Health. In April 2006, the journal Nature Materials estimated that 130 nanotech-based drugs and delivery systems were being developed worldwide. Nanomedicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Neuro-electronic interfaces and other nanoelectronics-based sensors are another active goal of research. Further down the line, the speculative field of molecular nanotechnology believes that cell repair machines could revolutionize medicine and the medical field.

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Nanomaterials - the Future Technology

Nanomaterials is a field that takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology. It studies materials with morphological features on the nanoscale, and especially those that have special properties stemming from their nanoscale dimensions. An important aspect of nanotechnology is the vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume present in many nanoscale materials, which makes possible new quantum mechanical effects.

It studies materials with morphological features on the nanoscale

One example is the “quantum size effect” where the electronic properties of solids are altered with great reductions in particle size. Novel mechanical properties of nanomaterials is a subject of nanomechanics research. Broadly speaking, nanotechnology is the synthesis and application of ideas from science and engineering towards the understanding and production of novel materials and devices. These products generally make copious use of physical properties associated with small scales.

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    • Magnetic Nanoparticle October 7, 2011
      High capacity information storage, for instance, requires smaller particle size that decreasing the particle size lowers the anisotropy energy responsible for holding the magnetic moments along certain directions and it becomes comparable to the thermal energy. […]
      metalkunde
    • Materials Science – Overview October 5, 2011
      Materials can be natural - like wood, or human-made - like plastic. Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. […]
      metalkunde
    • What is Nanobots ? October 4, 2011
      Nanorobotics is the emerging technology field of creating machines or robots whose components are at or close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10?9 meters). […]
      metalkunde
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